Choose your screen resolution: Auto adjust 800x600 1024x768


Aearly history of rhetoric
Scris de mihaiela lazar   
Marţi, 08 Septembrie 2020 09:31

EARLY HISTORY OF RHETORIC


Arbore Beatrice-Camelia, profesor de limba engleză

Școala Primară „Gheorghe Asachi”, Iași


Summary: The earliest mention of oratorical skill can be found in Homer’s Iliad, where the characters were honored for their ability to advise other people. With the rise of the democratic polis, the rhetorical art was adjusted to the needs of the public and political life of cities in Ancient Greece. Rhetoric thus evolved as an important art that helped the orator to persuade an audience of the correctness of the orator’s arguments. Although nowadays the term “rhetoric” is sometimes used with a pejorative connotation, namely that of obscuring the truth, classical philosophers believed quite the contrary: the skilled use of rhetoric was essential to the discovery of truths.

Key words: rhetoric, Homer, Aristotle, Renaissance, medieval culture

The earliest mention of oratorical skill can be found in Homer’s Iliad, where heroes like Achilles, Hector, and Odysseus were honored for their ability to advise and exhort other people in appropriate action. With the rise of the democratic polis, the rhetorical art was adjusted to the needs of the public and political life of cities in Ancient Greece. Rhetoric evolved as an important art, one that provided the orator with the forms, means, and strategies for persuading an audience of the correctness of the orator’s arguments. Nowadays the term rhetoric is sometimes used to refer only to the form of argumentation, often with a pejorative connotation, namely that of obscuring the truth. Classical philosophers believed quite the contrary: the skilled use of rhetoric was essential to the discovery of truths, because it provided the means of arranging and clarifying arguments. Aristotle identifies three types or genres of civic rhetoric: forensic (also known as judicial, concerned with determining the truth or falsity of events that took place in the past), deliberative (also known as political, concerned with determining whether or not particular actions should be taken in the future), and epideictic (also known as ceremonial, concerned with notions such as praise and blame, right and wrong).

Oration also became an important part of Roman public life. Cicero (106-43 BC) and Quintilian (35-100 AD) are two of the major Roman rhetoricians. Rhetorica ad Herennium, formerly attributed to Cicero, but of unknown authorship, is one of the most significant works on rhetoric and is still widely used as a reference today. Cicero’s works include the influential De Inventione (On Invention), De Oratore, Topics, Brutus and Orator (a defense of Cicero’s style). It was the rediscovery of Cicero’s speeches (such as The Defence of Archias) and letters (to Atticus) by Italians like Petrarch that, in part, influenced the cultural innovations that came to be known as the Renaissance. In his work Institutio oratoria (or Institutes of Oratory), Quintilian speaks about the training of the “perfect” orator from birth to old age and, in the process, reviews the doctrines and opinions of many previous influential rhetoricians.

The emergence of Christianity sealed the fate of rhetoric. So deep was the anti-rhetoric attitude of the first Christians and medieval theologians that, for a long time, rhetoric was believed to have vanished until the Renaissance. After a systematic study of the medieval culture, the philologists discovered that in fact numerous treatises circulated throughout the Middle Ages. In 1910, L. J. Patow stated that rhetoric became a discipline that cumulated the functions of the literary criticism and poetics. According to C. S. Baldwin (1928), rhetoric was absorbed by grammar after the promotion of dialectics as ars atrium in the medieval culture. Echoing Baldwin’s assertion, C. H. Haskins concludes that for the ancient people rhetoric was an “art” of oratory while for the medieval people it was an art of epistolography.

 

Bibliography

1. Vasile Florescu, Florescu V., Retorica şi Neoretorica. Geneză, evoluţie, perspective, Editura Academiei, Bucureşti, 1973.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetoric

Vasile Florescu, Florescu V., Retorica şi Neoretorica. Geneză, evoluţie, perspective. Bucureşti, Editura Academiei, 1973, p. 87-88.


Articole asemanatoare mai vechi:

Ultima actualizare în Sâmbătă, 24 Octombrie 2020 12:02
 

Revista cu ISSN

Jocul modalitate de predare si evaluare …

JOCUL - MODALITATE DE PREDARE ȘI EVALUARE LA COPIII CU C.E.S. Prof. Clipa Daniela Carmen Şcoala Gimnazială Nr. 17 Botoşani Una...

Read more

Metoda proiectului in invatamantul presc…

METODA PROIECTULUI ÎN ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTUL PREŞCOLAR Înv. Gajdo Eszter Şcoala Gimnazială „Orbán Balázs” Acest articol îşi propune să prezinte rolul, importanţa şi etapele proiectului în procesul instructiv-educativ desfăşurat la nivelul învăţământului...

Read more

Rolul adolescentului in societate

ROLUL ADOLESCENTULUI ÎN SOCIETATE   Prof. Teodorescu Lacramioara Liceul Teoretic D. Zamfirescu Odobeşti, Jud. Vrancea Fiecare adolescent este un caz concret, distinct şi trebuie tratat ca atare. El are maniera sa...

Read more

Ordinul 6866 din 2012 privind aprobarea …

Ordinul 5866 din 26 septembrie 2012 (Ordinul 5866/2012) Ordinul privind aprobarea programelor scolare de Limba si literatura italiana materna pentru clasele a IX-a si a X-a   Afla ordinul privind aprobarea programelor scolare...

Read more

CAUZELE ALBIRII RECIFURILOR DE CORALI_ST…

STUDIU DE CAZ DESPRE CAUZELE ALBIRII RECIFURILOR DE CORALI Prof. Dimitriu Alina Grup Școlar Agricol Alexandria, jud. Teleorman Recifurile de corali sunt printre cele mai diverse...

Read more

Educatia prin diversitate

EDUCATIA PENTRU DIVERSITATE     Sintagma scoala pentru diversitate este echivalenta sintagmei scoala pentru toti si reprezinta dezideratul maximei tolerante in ceea ce priveste diferentele fizice, socioculturale, lingvistice si psihologice existente intre copii/elevi,...

Read more

Asupra unor inconsecvente in notatiile d…

ASUPRA UNOR INCONVENIENŢE ÎN NOTAŢIILE DIN MANUALELE DE FIZICĂ ACTUALE   prof. Cristea Adrian Colegiul Tehnic"Petru Poni" – Roman, jud. Neamț   Deoarece în standardul actual, ISO-31, nu am găsit descrierea explicită a modului de...

Read more

Drogurile si efectele lor asupra organis…

DROGURILE SI EFECTELE LOR ASUPRA ORGANISMULUI Prof. Camelia Cosma Liceul de Artă “Ioan Sima”, Zalău Școala Gimnazială “Porolissum”, Zalău Drogurile sunt substanţe naturale...

Read more